(This is a work in progess...)
Equivalent statement about the columns being
Each row and each column in the group multiplication table lists each of the group elements once and only once.
From this, it follows that no two elements may be in the identical location in two rows or two columns.
Thus, each row and each column is a rearranged list of the group elements.
Stated otherwise, given a group of n distinct elements , the set of products reproduces the original distinct elements in a new order.
Every group is isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group acting on .
A set of elements is called a cyclic group of order .
A group is called cyclic if there exists an element in such that
Proposition about being cyclic:
is cyclic if and only if .
where is Euler's totient function and is Carmichael function.
= number of integers between & which are relatively prime to n.
= minimal raised power when all relatively prime integers raised to that number () modulus equal
is cyclic if and only if , any power of an odd prime () or twice any power of an odd prime ().
Let , where .
Suppose not contained in .
Then the collection defined by is called right coset of w.r.t to
An element is said to be conjugate to w.r.t if
Normal Subgroup and Factor Group (Quotient Group):
is normal if ,
The key thing about Normal subgroups is that you can use to split into a bunch of cosets, and you can treat these
In this factor group, the subgroup is the identity element